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Facts

Caffeine
  1. Childs, E. and de, Wit H. Enhanced mood and psychomotor performance by a caffeine-containing energy capsule in fatigued individuals. Exp.Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;16(1):13-21.
  2. Smillie, L. D. and Gokcen, E. Caffeine enhances working memory for extraverts. Biol Psychol. 2010;85(3):496-498
  3. Lohi, J. J., Huttunen, K. H., Lahtinen, T. M., Kilpelainen, A. A., Muhli, A. A., and Leino, T. K. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students. Mil.Med 2007;172(9):982-987
  4. Ker, K., Edwards, P. J., Felix, L. M., Blackhall, K., and Roberts, I. Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;(5):CD008508
  5. Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., and Scholey, A. B. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol. 2008;77(2):113-122.
  6. Killgore, W. D., Rupp, T. L., Grugle, N. L., Reichardt, R. M., Lipizzi, E. L., and Balkin, T. J. Effects of dextroamphetamine, caffeine and modafinil on psychomotor vigilance test performance after 44 h of continuous wakefulness. J Sleep Res 2008;17(3):309-321.
  7. Kohler, M., Pavy, A., and van den Heuvel, C. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res 2006;15(4):358-368
  8. Philip, P., Taillard, J., Moore, N., Delord, S., Valtat, C., Sagaspe, P., and Bioulac, B. The effects of coffee and napping on nighttime highway driving: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 6-6-2006;144(11):785-791
  9. Olson, C. A., Thornton, J. A., Adam, G. E., and Lieberman, H. R. Effects of 2 adenosine antagonists, quercetin and caffeine, on vigilance and mood. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;30(5):573-578.
  10. Barry, R. J., Johnstone, S. J., Clarke, A. R., Rushby, J. A., Brown, C. R., and McKenzie, D. N. Caffeine effects on 
  11. Elie, D., Gagnon, P., Gagnon, B., and Giguere, A. [Using psychostimulants in end-of-life patients with hypoactive delirium and cognitive disorders: A literature review]. Can J Psychiatry 2010;55(6):386-393ERPs and performance in an auditory Go/NoGo task. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007;118(12):2692-2699
  12. Warren, G. L., Park, N. D., Maresca, R. D., McKibans, K. I., and Millard-Stafford, M. L. Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and endurance: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(7):1375-1387.
  13. Doherty, M. and Smith, P. M. Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise testing: a meta-analysis. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2004;14(6):626-646
  14. Simmonds, M. J., Minahan, C. L., and Sabapathy, S. Caffeine improves supramaximal cycling but not the rate of anaerobic energy release. Eur.J Appl Physiol 2010;109(2):287-295
  15. Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., Taylor, L., Willoughby, D., Stout, J., Graves, B. S., Wildman, R., Ivy, J. L., Spano, M., Smith, A. E., and Antonio, J. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010;7(1):5.
  16. Stevenson, E. J., Hayes, P. R., and Allison, S. J. The effect of a carbohydrate-caffeine sports drink on simulated golf performance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009;34(4):681-688.
  17. Hudson, G. M., Green, J. M., Bishop, P. A., and Richardson, M. T. Effects of caffeine and aspirin on light resistance training performance, perceived exertion, and pain perception. J Strength.Cond.Res 2008;22(6):1950-1957
  18. Gant, N., Ali, A., and Foskett, A. The influence of caffeine and carbohydrate coingestion on simulated soccer performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2010;20(3):191-197
  19. Foskett, A., Ali, A., and Gant, N. Caffeine enhances cognitive function and skill performance during simulated soccer activity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2009;19(4):410-423
  20. Hudson, G. M., Green, J. M., Bishop, P. A., and Richardson, M. T. Effects of caffeine and aspirin on light resistance training performance, perceived exertion, and pain perception. J Strength.Cond.Res 2008;22(6):1950-1957.
  21. McNaughton, L. R., Lovell, R. J., Siegler, J., Midgley, A. W., Moore, L., and Bentley, D. J. The effects of caffeine ingestion on time trial cycling performance. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2008;3(2):157-163.
  22. O'Rourke, M. P., O'Brien, B. J., Knez, W. L., and Paton, C. D. Caffeine has a small effect on 5-km running performance of well-trained and recreational runners. J Sci Med Sport 2008;11(2):231-233.
  23. Pedersen, D. J., Lessard, S. J., Coffey, V. G., Churchley, E. G., Wootton, A. M., Ng, T., Watt, M. J., and Hawley, J. A. High rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis after exhaustive exercise when carbohydrate is coingested with caffeine
  24. Doherty, M. The effects of caffeine on the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit and short-term running performance. Int.J.Sport Nutr. 1998;8(2):95-104.
  25. Roberts, S. P., Stokes, K. A., Trewartha, G., Doyle, J., Hogben, P., and Thompson, D. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol. J Sports Sci 2010;28(8):833-842.
  26. Durlach PJ.  The effects of a low dose of caffeine on cognitive performance.  Psychopharmacology 1998; 140:116-119.
  27. Kaplan GB, Greenblatt DJ, Ehrenberg BL, et al.  Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and psychomotor effects of caffeine in humans.  J Clin Pharmacol. 1997; 37:693-703.
  28. Sicard BA, Perault MC, Enslen M, et al.  The effects of 600mg of slow release caffeine on mood and alertness.  Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996; 67:859-862.


Panax Ginseng

  1. Forgo, I. [Effect of drugs on physical exertion and the hormonal system of athletes. 2.]. MMW.Munch Med Wochenschr 9-23-1983;125(38):822-824
  2. Cherdrungsi P and Rungroeng K. Effects of standardized ginseng extract and exercise training on aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities in humans. Korean J Ginseng Sci 1995;19(2):93-100
  3. Pieralisi, G., Ripari, P., and Vecchiet, L. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract combined with dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements on physical performance during exercise. Clin Ther 1991;13(3):373-382.
  4. McNaughton L, Egan G, and Caelli G. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int Clin Nutr Rev 1988;19(1):32-35
  5. Van Schepdael P. Les effets du ginseng G115 sur la capacite physique de sportifs d'endurance. Acta Therapeutica 1993;19:337-347.
  6. Kim, S. H., Park, K. S., Chang, M. J., and Sung, J. H. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on exercise-induced oxidative stress. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2005;45(2):178

Taurine
  1. Seidl, R., Peyrl, A., Nicham, R., and Hauser, E. A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being. Amino.Acids 2000;19(3-4):635-642
  2. Baum, M. and Weiss, M. The influence of a taurine containing drink on cardiac parameters before and after exercise measured by echocardiography. Amino.Acids 2001;20(1):75-82
  3. Horne, J. A. and Reyner, L. A. Beneficial effects of an "energy drink" given to sleepy drivers. Amino.Acids 2001;20(1):83-89.
  4. Warburton DM, Bersellini E, Sweeney E.  An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence.  Psychopharmacology 2001; 158(3):322-328.

Tyrosine
  1. O'Brien C, Mahoney C, Tharion WJ, et al. Dietary tyrosine benefits cognitive and psychomotor performance during body cooling. Physiol Behav. 2007 Feb 28;90(2-3):301-7.
  2. Banderet LE, Leiberman HR.  Treatment with tyrosine, a neurotransmitter precursor, reduces environmental stress in humans.  Brain Res Bull. 1989; 22(4):759-762.
  3. Neri DF, Wietmann D, Stanny RR, et al.  The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.  Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995; 66(4):313-319.
  4. Shurtleff D, Thomas JR, Schrot J, et al.  Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans.  Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994; 47(4):935-941.


Other Information

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